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One year, a monk decides to venture forth into the world and he founds a new monastery, taking a copy of the book with him.He continues copying the book out to preserve it through time and minor errors inevitably slip in.Al Tanner does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment.University of Bristol provides funding as a founding partner of The Conversation UK.Evolution can be convergent, where different species independently evolve to appear similar, making it easy to mistake them for being closely related.
View the full list In the 150 years since Charles Darwin recognised the kinship of all life, scientists have worked to fulfil his dream of a complete Tree of Life.
The molecular clock has provided a narrative for evolution across short and long timescales.
In 2012, researchers concluded that the AIDS epidemic in India had a common ancestor 40 years ago, and from this they could infer the spread of the disease.
For example, to say that chimpanzees and humans diverged 8,028,519 years ago is less useful than saying they diverged 8 million years ago, plus or minus 300,000 years.
This kind of uncertainty can be minimised through effective use of calibrations and by making the most of the data available.
A metaphor where information is passed through time can illustrate the concept.