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At Earth's surface most of these nuclides are produced by neutron spallation.
Using certain cosmogenic radionuclides, scientists can date how long a particular surface has been exposed, how long a certain piece of material has been buried, or how quickly a location or drainage basin is eroding, Accordingly, by measuring the concentration of these cosmogenic nuclides in a rock sample, and accounting for the flux of the cosmic rays and the half-life of the nuclide, it is possible to estimate how long the sample has been exposed to the cosmic rays, the cumulative flux of cosmic rays at a particular location can be affected by several factors, including elevation, geomagnetic latitude, the varying intensity of the Earth's magnetic field, solar winds, and atmospheric shielding due to air pressure variations.
The parent isotopes are the most abundant of these elements, and are common in crustal material, whereas the radioactive daughter nuclei are not commonly produced by other processes, as oxygen-16 is also common in the atmosphere, the contribution to the beryllium-10 concentration from material deposited rather than created in situ must be taken into account.
Al, each of these nuclides is produced at a different rate.
Decay rates are given by the decay constants of the nuclides, these equations can be combined to give the total concentration of cosmogenic radionuclides in a sample as a function of age.
Based on these assumptions he at first suggested an age of the Earth of between 100 Ma and 500 Ma.
Cosmogenic nuclides such as these are produced by chains of spallation reactions.